Tatar-Mongols and Russia. Then, in 1783, almost 400 years passed after the Battle of Kulikovo and 300 years after the overthrow of the Tatar-Mongol yoke by the Grand Duke of Moscow Ivan III. From the mighty Horde there were only fragments left - the Tatar khanate: Kazan, Crimea, Kasimov, Astrakhan. Muscovy grew stronger and under Ivan the Terrible took Kazan and Astrakhan. But the Crimean Khan Devlet-Girey broke through to Moscow itself. The king fled north. Tens of thousands of Russian people died in the fires and thousands were driven into slavery. Khan promised to destroy Muscovy soon. But was repelled.
Tatar raids to the south of Russia did not stop. From the Crimean Kafa (Theodosia), caravans of ships with Russian slaves stretched to the slave markets of Genoa, Venice, Pisa, Florence ... Up to 5 million people were hijacked by Tatars from Great and Little Russia, from Poland.
In 1779, the poem of Russia’s State Councilor Mikhail Kheraskov, a poem published by Ivan the Terrible, was published. This poem was very popular with his contemporaries. It reflected the spirit of those times, the times of the formation of Great Russia, the golden age of Catherine. It was a glorious time. The people rested after victorious wars, the nobility had fun. As manna from heaven, new lands fell, promising the glory and wealth of the Empire. The ranks and awards to brilliant heroes of wars fell.
Catherine Eagles! Great commanders of indestructible regiments! Prince Golitsyn, who smashed the Grand Vizier and took Khotyn and Iasi in the Russian-Turkish war of 1768-1774. Count Rumyantsev, who smashed ten times the army of Turks at Kagul. Prince Suvorov, reflecting the Turkish landings on the Crimea. The then unknown commander of the Kutuzov battalion, who lost an eye in the Crimea in battle.
In the winter of 1769, Turkey declared war on Russia. And the Tatar cavalry made its last foray. Tatars burned, robbed, driven people, horses, cattle. Two years later, retribution came - the army of Prince Dolgorukov took Perekop and drove Turkish troops out of the peninsula. The Crimean Khanate was forced to become independent of the Splendid Porta. The pro-Russian Khan Shagin-Girey became the ruler of the Crimea.
"You must exalt the glory of Russia"
At the end of 1782, Grand Duke Grigory Alexandrovich Potemkin, the main supporter of the annexation of Crimea to Russia, wrote to Empress Catherine II:
“Crimea by its position breaks our borders [...] Well now, that Crimea is yours, and that this wart is no longer on the nose - then all of a sudden the position of the borders is beautiful: according to Bug, the Turks border us directly, therefore we must deal with us directly , and not under the name of others ... You must exalt the glory of Russia ... ".
Novorossiysk governor, omnipotent Potemkin ardently assured his secret wife of the need to acquire Crimea for the Russian Empire. Catherine looked back at the West, but Potemkin pointed out to her that the great powers were acquiring colonies and tailing the world by their standards. And Catherine the Great decided. In December of the same year, she handed the prince a secret rescript of the annexation of the Crimea.
Potemkin was not an outstanding military leader, but he was a skilful business manager and a skillful diplomat. The Most Serene Prince wanted to annex the Crimea bloodlessly, and even at the request of his people.
"Pearl of the Crown"
European-educated Khan Shahin Giray tried to carry out economic reforms on the peninsula. But the horde, who lived for hundreds of years alone raids and robberies, rebelled against him. The rebellion was suppressed by Russian troops. And soon, the Crimea became Russian.
Novorossiysk Governor Prince Potyomkin developed an energetic activity in arranging new lands of the Russian crown. Land and will was promised to the settlers. Novorossiysk region grew, as if by magic. And not "Potemkin villages" were built in the steppes of New Russia. New ports were laid, the Black Sea Fleet was created.
And when Mother Catherine in 1787 toured the new southern lands of the Empire, it was not without reason that she was pleased with the troubles of Prince Potemkin, for 3 years now as Tavrichesky.
Tavrida, ancient Crimea. How many nations he saw in his lifetime! Crimea and the Third Rome ... The story continues.