And as an example - “The Quiet Don” by M. Sholokhov. To him, he compiled explanations of many words and turns that are present in the novel. In the Writers' Union they scolded Sholokhov for being carried away, they say, with an overly peculiar colloquial speech of the Cossacks. But without local words, the work would greatly lose, losing the charm of a living folk language.
I, who grew up in a Cossack region, absorbed the language of the Don Cossacks, it is obvious that it is clogged with unnecessary foreign words and other garbage that has poured into the media and on television screens. The picture is sad. The generation that read "Silent Don" without the help of the very big dictionary to it goes into oblivion. I notice often and for myself that I stopped thinking with the use of Cossack language. And to write this material, I had to remember some words. But most of them have already been forgotten for the reason that they have been ousted from my memory.
And there was a time (I was at university) when I was often asked a question:
- What kind of tarabansky language you speak with us?
"Relearn" became later. And there were cases when I forgot to replace the Cossack word with the generally accepted one.
... Once I walked around the market in one of the cities of the Southern Urals, I see large tomatoes on the counter. I decided to buy. I come up, I say:
- A kilogram of potash.
“Well, this is ... a kilogram ...” I show with a finger. For some reason, completely flew out of my head that the red and oblong called tomatoes.
... In the Bashkir colloquial language, the word "babay" is grandfather. It happened somehow with the Bashkirs to go fishing. In the morning we got up from the tent, drank tea and went to the boat. And here I turn back - to the tent.
- What are you doing?
- Babayki forgot to take!
Silent scene. They stare at me in surprise, trying to figure out what he meant. With difficulty, he later explained that there were oars on the Don govory. But until the end of fishing, they called me Babaykin.
... I'm traveling somehow with a friend by car. He is driving, I am on the side. Siberian region. Wilderness Taiga. The road is broken. And suddenly a hare flies at her. And begins to rush in the headlights. It is a pity, now we will crush the hare. I scream, trying to make a friend hear from behind a straining motor:
- Yes, on the Galma!
A friend, stunned by this word, slows down (having overpowered the hunting excitement) and asks in surprise:
- What did you say?
- Said to put pressure on the brakes. We have a galma on Don - brakes.
- Shaitan you take it! Have missed the hare! It is impossible to drive with you without an interpreter!
... Another time I drink beer with him. His wife comes to the hut. Starts to grumble (we trash!). He takes an empty bottle from the floor, looks at the hut puzzledly: where should he put it?
“Yes, put it on the cap,” I tell her.
Vasily and his wife stare at me for a long time, trying to understand the meaning of the word.
- Yes, on the hearth of the furnace, it is not heated in your summer, - I explain.
- You should have said so from the start. And then some kind of stuffing made up.
There are many such words in the Don language that a translator is needed. Here is a snapshot, from memory: latata (water lily), baby lich (to speak with repetitions), yuzzhat (squeal), shulun (broth), tataura (sword belt), pickle (scold), suzyma (fermented milk), sym (cream), chopstick (large crowd), retell (report something), pan (big catfish), pampushka (bun), carrion (illegitimate child), fucking (desperate), otrozhina (branch), otos (cable), twist (pamper child) , imurka (alfalfa), mowed (cut), kavilyuzhechka (scratch), kavosya (whom), kaldyuzhina (puddle), anyhow (if only), alakhar (frivolous), enchant (lure), square current (flower), labets (end) pilignut (peep) razhka (road fork), Smuga (shadow), hlestun (talkative) ...
So what language do Don Cossacks speak? Independent it can not be called. We are dealing with a mixture of languages. But this mixture turned into something special. Philologists discovered with amazement the Slavic-Turkic basis. On the Don there are Oryol-Kursk dialects, Tambov-Ryazan, and they layered on the language remnants of the Polovtsian tribes.
Famous Soviet scientist A. M. Listopadov wrote: “For all the Don's dialects, the transition of middle nouns to the feminine category is typical ... The Cossacks in many cases retained the peculiarities of the language of their Turkic ancestors. The saturation of the Turkic roots characterizes it so much that in the old time in Russia the Cossack speech was considered Slavic-Tatar ”.
It is also interesting that before the XIX century there was bilingualism on the Don: women and children spoke Turkic dialect, and men were fluent in ordinary Russian speech, since they served the Russian tsar directly and took part in all military events.
Life does not stand still. But it’s sad that young people on the Don, reading the school program "Silent Don", no longer understand the language of the characters and often refer to the dictionary at the end of the book.
From the editors.
May 24, 1905, exactly 110 years ago, in the village of Veshenskaya, in the family of an ordinary peasant, was born Mikhail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov. And, although because of the revolution and the civil war, the writer failed to get a full-fledged education, at the age of 21 he began work on The Quiet Don, one of the great novels of Russian literature.